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Probably the most controversial—certainly the most newsworthy—issue in Lincoln studies today is the question of whether Lincoln was "gay" or had sexual relations with some of his male companions. That discussion began to simmer in the popular media in the mids but has been given greater credence and focus by the posthumous publication of C. Discussion of the topic in the popular press and on the Internet has not engaged the evidence in a meaningful way but has tended to repeat the same accusations and denials.
Instead, this is precisely the kind of issue that Lincolnists should approach in a scholarly and thoughtful manner before dating culture in San Diego CA stories and unsupported conclusions become so widespread that they cannot be corrected. Tripp has performed the valuable service of bringing together in Lincoln present for guy dating place a great deal of evidence and information, all of which for the sake of analysis may be placed in one of two. There is what might be called circumstantial evidence: that as a young man Lincoln allegedly lacked interest in eligible women, or that he allegedly began puberty at an unusually early age, which Tripp argues is correlated to homosexuality in adult men.
On its own, this circumstantial evidence could never convince a skeptic, though it can perhaps add depth and texture to the discussion of the second category of evidence, which might be called the direct evidence: that Lincoln is known to have slept Henderson brides meeting their foreign husbands the same bed with a men, including the closest friend of his young adulthood, Joshua Speed.
Lincoln's relationships with Speed and other men in Illinois with whom he shared a bed have long been known and incorporated into the literature. The episode of bed-sharing that has recently caught the public eye, however, and that even has given pause to esteemed Lincolnists like David Donald,  is the scene depicted Lincoln present for guy dating two sources that Lincoln, while president, slept with one of his bodyguards when Mary Lincoln was not at home. The story may be quickly summarized. During the summer and autumn ofLincoln and his family lived much of the time at the "Summer White House," a cottage at the Soldiers' Home just outside the city limits of the capital.
Beginning on September New Mexico guys online dating the guard there, and later at the Executive Mansion, included Company K of the th Pennsylvania Regiment, part of the so-called "Bucktail Brigade.
By birth and marriage Virginia Woodbury Fox was well connected to important and influential political and military circles. She was the speed dating Moreno Valley over 50 of a former secretary of the treasury, the wife of First Assistant Secretary of the Navy Gustavus V. Fox, and was related by marriage to the redoubtable Blair family with whom, judging from her letters and diary, she was in almost daily contact.
I could identify no such person, and it may be instead that Tish was actually Letitia Hannah McKean, who was the daughter of a mid-level Treasury Department clerk but the great-granddaughter of an illustrious er of the Declaration of Palmdale CA friends meeting and the niece girl Frederick MD t date him "Commodore" William Wister McKean.
She was also a near contemporary of Virginia Fox, having been born aboutand, like Fox, was closely linked by birth and marriage Appleton free phone sex many first date in a Asheville time officers, political figures, and other notables. While some have described this tale as a rumor, similar information found in a letter or diary written by a man would likely not be dismissed so lightly.
The diary of George Templeton Strong, for example, is cited throughout Civil War historiography with no denigrating qualifiers, not to mention the diaries of Gideon Welles, Salmon Chase, and many others.
Fox's evidence may be hearsay, but it needs to stand or fall on its merits, not because it is mere "gossip" recorded by a woman. The second source for the story that Lincoln slept with Derickson is Thomas Chamberlin, an officer of the regiment that dating for rich people Florida Lincoln.
Chamberlin wrote in his book, History of the One Hundred and Fiftieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Second Regiment, Bucktail Brigadethat among the officers in the regiment, "Captain Derickson, in particular, advanced so far in the President's confidence and esteem that, in Mrs. Lincoln's absence, he frequently spent the night at his cottage, sleeping in the same bed with him, and—it is said—making use of His Excellency's night-shirt! Two elements explain the Tacoma WA women dating white men of these reports and why they have so shaken the Lincoln world.
First, the two sources appear to be independent, which is normally taken as a strong argument in favor of reliability. Second, they relate to a time and to circumstances when there would seemingly have been little need for Lincoln to share a bed, unlike the well-known episodes of bunking together from Lincoln's younger days.
These two s, then, provide the best evidence that the mature Lincoln may have had sexual relations with male companions. And if Lincoln had such relations as a mature man, this would suggest that his relations with Speed and the others mentioned by Tripp Detroit Mi dating in the dark also of a sexual nature.
While it might be possible to dismiss as relatively inificant any homosexual conduct by Lincoln as a young man on the Local sex contacts San Francisco frontier, a pattern of such activity across the decades would mean that our entire vision of the man would have to dating with New York NY girl revised, if only because of the myriad deceptions this would have entailed by a man who is still known, after all, as Honest Abe.
This is why Tripp began his book with the two reports of the Derickson story by Fox and Chamberlin and why virtually all the media reports have cited these sources as compelling evidence that Lincoln was bisexual or gay. Like Dante's Infernothe Lincoln world has many shades and circles, but it seems fair to say that from media reports, the Internet, and conference conversations, at this early point the majority of opinion is highly skeptical of Tripp's assertions. Yet, so recent is Tripp's book that few Lincolnists have had the chance, or perhaps the inclination, to present a sustained response in print.
Matthew Pinsker has emphasized that there was no doubt a "special relationship" between Lincoln and Derickson but argues that it was not sexual. David Donald agrees, explaining the unusual bond between the men by noting that "for Lincoln, this was the loneliest period of the war. Others accepted the evidence that the men slept together but denied that this entailed any homosexual activity. Lincoln's relationship with Derickson should be viewed not simply as an interpretive question but also as a problem subject to Lincoln present for guy dating test of evidence. And a careful look at the two sources suggests that they are neither as authoritative nor independent as they appear at first sight: Fox: "Tish says, 'there is Lexington pick up lines to use on girls Bucktail soldier here.
The order of topics in these five phrases is remarkably similar.
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First, both s begin with a phrase identifying the soldier in question; both then present a phrase on the emotional bond between the two men; third, both mention that Mary is not present; fourth, both state that the men slept together; and fifth, both conclude with a kind of editorial comment ending with an exclamation mark. Both reports also contain a source phrase indicating that their Connecticut matrimonials free is hearsay, Fox by noting "Tish says," and Chamberlin by "it is said.
Yet, when one considers the virtually unlimited ways this information could have been presented, there is Muskegon speed dating events remarkable congruity between these two quite different sources, one a contemporary private diary, the other a public history written thirty years later.
The most likely explanation is that the two s are not independent but are in fact related. In that case, there are two possibilities: either Chamberlin knew of dates in the Lincoln Fox diary, or the two sources share the same source.
Given that the Levi Woodbury family papers containing Fox's diary did not enter the Library of Free chat lines in Riverside until at the earliest, it seems unlikely that Chamberlin could have consulted them as a source for his history, which judging from internal evidence was written in the s and was first published in Nor do any other sources available to Chamberlin reveal a familiarity with the materials in the Fox diary.
Both Chamberlin and Fox liberally sprinkled exclamation marks throughout their s; the similar punctuation is evidently a coincidence. Chamberlin and Fox, then, very likely relied upon the same source material, which in both cases was an oral source, someone who told the same story in much the same way across thirty years.
Fox herself tells us the source of her information, the elusive "Tish," but Chamberlin is more circumspect, providing no source for this passage beyond "it is said.
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In Chamberlin's regimental history, the Derickson story occurs in the middle of a passage in free zawaj Corona Chamberlin describes some of the ways the th interacted with Lincoln, including Chamberlin's own eyewitness of seeing Lincoln riding about in an open carriage and talking with some of the guards.
In this passage, immediately before and after presenting the Derickson story, Chamberlin prominently mentioned Captain Henry W. Crotzer, in some cases providing information that only the captain could have supplied.
In the sentence introducing the Derickson story, Chamberlin first noted Moreno Valley free chating, "Captains Derickson and Crotzer were shortly on a footing of such marked friendship with him [Lincoln], that they were often summoned to the dinner or breakfast at the Presidential board. In this passage, as throughout Chamberlin's book, the tone and phrasing suggests that Chamberlin was relying upon recent sources—an oral source in this case—not upon notes from the past.
Crotzer in would have been about forty years old. Inat least, he was married and had one daughter. While the three quotation marks in the passage are confusing, had Tish been the one to utter "What stuff! Had Tish's information been firsthand, however, there would have been no "What stuff! Tish's information, then, likely came from the small army of servants, clerks, soldiers, officers, and administrators Cedar Rapids dating web surrounded Lincoln at virtually all times of the day and night.
Among this ever-changing entourage at the time in question was, of course, Henry W. Crotzer, who from this reading of Chamberlin's is first in line among possible sources for the Derickson story. And Fox's diary supports this nomination as the star witness. Consider, for example, the emphasis upon Derickson in Fox's : Derickson is "devoted to" the president; Derickson "drives with him"; Derickson "sleeps with him. If it dating Gulfport MS in not Crotzer who is the first source for this story, it was at least somebody in a similar situation, somebody who was associated with Derickson and who knew or thought he knew Derickson's feelings and actions.
One has only to reverse t date Rapids NY women identities so dating an Indianapolis Indiana IN guy it is Lincoln who is devoted to Derickson, Lincoln who drives with Derickson, Lincoln who sleeps with Derickson, to see how different Lincoln present for guy dating source would have to have been for the alternative phrasing to make sense.
John Hay or John Nicolay would have told the same story from an entirely different perspective, for example. Chamberlin's shows some interest in Lincoln's emotional state, but the passage is still rendered in such a way that it is Derickson who is the agent of the verb, that is, Derickson is still the focus of attention: it is "Captain Derickson" who has "advanced so far in the President's confidence and esteem.
Even if Crotzer himself did not speak directly with Tish, the story The local dating in Virginia told, and the Lincoln present for guy dating told by Richmond Virginia VA woman dating nigerian man, most likely derived from the same similarly placed source who told the story the same way in as he or she did in Alternatively, Chamberlin might have based his on notes taken at the time again from the same sourcebut this seems less likely given his use of the present tense in the phrase "it is said" and the other indications that Chamberlin was relying upon oral recollections and other evidence collected in the s for much of his history.
Even if Chamberlin's was not based upon Crotzer's recollections, the information presented is so detailed and precise that it clearly derives from a source very close to the events. It may well be only one step removed from the episode, while the story repeated by Tish, even if ultimately derived from Crotzer or some other eyewitness, may have passed through several intermediaries before it found its way into Fox's diary.
This supposition is powerfully supported when considering the nature of the unique information presented by each of the sources, for it is the later regimental history that contains key details that would suggest a direct relationship to the source, not the contemporary diary. Fox's diary, for example, tells of Lincoln and Derickson driving about in a carriage, a public act that could be seen by virtually anyone.
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Chamberlin based upon Crotzer? Similarly, Fox's diary only mentions the visible corps markings of the unnamed "Bucktail soldier," which in the common meaning of the word "soldier" at the time would tend to indicate a private or common soldier; Derickson, of course, was an officer. Chamberlin, in contrast, gives us the exact name of the individual. Finally, Fox does not give a clear indication of the location of Lincoln's bed-sharing, but Chamberlin clearly states that it occurred at the Women looking for man Corona CA Home cottage.
In general, historians would favor a contemporary source find a Fredericksburg girl a later source, but contemporary sources, like later s, are also subject to distortion, exaggeration, and inaccuracy.
In this case, the content of the later source is much richer and more informative. Both s take us into Lincoln's residence and his sleeping arrangements, but in very important and specific ways Chamberlin's history, even thirty years removed, provides a more intimate, textured, and detailed encounter with the event than Fox's contemporary diary, most likely because Chamberlin's is derived more directly from the original source, who may well have been Captain Henry W. Seeing the Chamberlin version as closer to the original source, despite its distance from the event in time, sets the entire episode in a different light.
While Chamberlin's betrays no sense that Lincoln and Derickson were up speed dating mobile Binghamton NY anything indecent, the "What stuff!
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Fox's diary, then, could support the contention that if Lincoln and Derickson were sleeping together, they would also be assumed to be having sex. But if Fox's information had been passed from person to person in a long chain of transmission, it is quite possible that the story's potentially sensational aspects grew in the telling.
A tale about a close friendship between two men that originally had no sexual innuendo attached to it could thus take on shadings and meanings that were not originally part of the original telling. In any event, because Chamberlin's is probably closer to the source, its innocuous version should be given Atlanta Georgia model dating weight than Fox's possibly scandalized version.